Det er noen næringsstoffer det er lurt å vite litt mer om

Sjekk kildene: Forskning om næringsstoffer i plantebasert kosthold

Generelt om nærignsstoffer i plantebasert kosthold

Flere faktaark utarbeidet av ernæringsfysiologer i regi av Academy of Nutrition and Dieteticslenke er her

Protein

«Proteinintaget bland barn i de nordiska länderna ligger två till tre gånger högre än de fysiologiska behoven [26]. Ett högt intag av animalieproteiner, framför allt från mjölkprodukter, under de första levnadsåren kan bidra till ökad tillväxt och högre BMI i barndomen samt är relaterat till tidigare pubertet och ökad risk för övervikt och fetma senare i livet [26, 27].»

Kilde: Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn. Sara Ask, dietist, Åsa Strindlund, nutritionist. Läkartidningen. 2014;111:CMEA Läkartidningen 11/2014 Lakartidningen.se 2014-03-11 (uppdaterad 2014-09-22)

  • Hörnell A, Lagström H, Lande B, et al. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Food Nutr Res. 2013;57. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21083
  • Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, et al. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1765-72.
  • Young VR, Pellett PL. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(5):1203S-12S.
  • Bhatia J, Greer F; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Use of soy protein-based formulas in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):1062-8.
  • Edwards DG, Cummings JH. The protein quality of mycoprotein. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69(OCE4);E331. doi: 10.1017/S0029665110001400
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM). Protein Myth

Aminosyrer

Fettsyrer

  • Lane K, Derbyshire E, Li W, Brennan C. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 Fatty acids: a review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54:572–9.
  • Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, et al. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:327-34.
  • Nyman M. Kortkedjiga fettsyror i tarmen ger positiva hälsoeffekter. Nordisk Nutrition. 2008;4:25-8.
  • Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EB. A Meta-Analysis Shows That Docosahexaenoic Acid from Algal Oil Reduces Serum Triglycerides and Increases HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol in Persons without Coronary Heart Disease. Journal of Nutrition. 2012. p. 99–104.
  • Lenihan-Geels G, Bishop KS, Ferguson LR. Alternative sources of omega-3 fats: can we find a sustainable substitute for fish? Nutrients. 2013;5:1301–15.
  • Sanders TA: Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):555S-559S;
  • Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78(3 Suppl):640S-646S;
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM). Essential Fatty Acids
  • Hunter JE: n-3 Fatty acids from vegetable oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:809-14;
  • Mantzioris E, James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG: Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9;
  • ScienceDaily. New Sustainable Plant Source Of Omega-3 21.03.2007

Kalsium

  • Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint  Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1638S-1642S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736P. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
  • Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R: Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):543S-548S;
  • Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3):543S-8S.
  • Calcium. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM):
  • Calcium in the Vegan Diet. Reed Mangels, PhD, RD
  • Marsh AG, Sanchez TV, Michelsen O. 1988. Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr 48 (suppl):837-41.
  • Chiu JF, Lan SJ, Yang CY, et al. 1997. Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in post-menopausal Taiwanese women. Calcif Tissue Int 60:245-49.
  • Kohlenberg-Mueller K, Raschka L. 2003. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet. J Bone Miner Metab 21:28-33.
  • Weaver CM, Plawecki KL. 1994. Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 59 (suppl):1238S-2011S.
  • Appleby P, Roddam A, Allen N, Key T. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61:1400-6.
  • Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90:1-8.
  • Weaver CM, Heaney RP, Nickel KP, et al. Calcium bioavailability from high oxalate vegetables: Chinese vegetables, sweet potatoes, and rhubarb. J Food Sci 1997;62:524-525.
  • Frassetto LA, Todd KM, Morris RC, Jr., et al. 2000. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:M585-92.
  • Sellmeyer DE, Stone KL, Sebastian A, et al. 2001. A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73:118-22.
  • Kalsium og benbygning. Vegetarian Resource Group

Vitamin D

  • Armas LAG, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5387–91.
  • Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, Klein EK, Young A, Bibuld D, et al. Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:677–81.
  • Casey CF, Slawson DC, Neal LR: Vitamin D supplementation in infants, children, and adolescents. Am Fam Physician 2010, 81(6):745-748
  • Kulie T, Groff A, Redmer J, Hounshell J, Schrager S: Vitamin D: an evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Med 2009, 22(6):698-706
  • Rangel-Castro JI, Staffas A, Danell E.: The ergocalciferol content of dried pigmented and albino Cantharellus cibarius fruit bodies. Mycological Research 106 (1): 70–73. doi:10.1017/S0953756201005299, 2002
  • Kristensen HL, Rosenqvist E og Jakobsen J: Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Food & Nutrition Research, Vol 56 (2012)
  • Livsmedelsverket. Fettlösliga vitaminer.

Vitamin B12

  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): B12
  • McBride: B12 Deficiency May Be More Widespread Than Thought. 02.08.2000, USDA Agricultural Research Service,
  • «Grunnleggende ernæringslære». Jan Ivar Pedersen, Hanne Müller, Anette Hjartåker, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Utgivelsesår: 2012, 460 sider, 2. utgave, Bokmål, ISBN/EAN: 9788205426566
  • Gilsing AMJ, Crowe FL, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TAB, Appleby PN, Allen NE, et al. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:933–9.
  • Krivosíková Z, Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Spustová V, Stefíková K, Valachovicová M, Blazícek P, et al. The association between high plasma homocysteine levels and lower bone mineral density in Slovak women: the impact of vegetarian diet. Eur J Nutr. 2010;49:147–53.
  • Kwak CS, Hwang JY, Watanabe F, et al. Vitamin B12 contents in some Korean fermented foods and edible seaweeds. Korean J Nutr. 2008;41(5):439-47.
  • Watanabe F. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability. Exp Biol Med. 2007;232:1266-74.
  • Watanabe F, Takenaka S, Kittaka-Katsura H, et al. Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002;48:325-31.
  • Rasmussen S, Fernhoff T, Scanlon K. Vitamin B12 deficiency in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2001;138(1):10-7.
  • Guez S, Chiarelli G, Menni F, et al. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:85.
  • Koebnick C, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PG, et al. Long-term ovo-lacto veg-etarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J Nutr. 2004;134:3319-26.

Jern

  • Gorczyca D, Prescha A, Szeremeta K, et al. Iron status and dietary iron intake of vegetarian children from Poland. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;62(4):291-7.
  • Teucher B, Olivares M, Cori H. Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74(6):403-19.
  • Hunt JR. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:633S–639S.
  • Iron in the Vegan Diet Reed Mangels. Vegetarian Resource Group
  • Craig WJ, Mangels AR; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jul;109(7):1266-82. PubMed PMID: 19562864.  Last ned pdf her

«Incidence of iron-deficiency anemia among vegetarians is similar to that of nonvegetarians (12,29). Although vegetarian adults have lower iron stores than nonvegetarians, their serum ferritin levels are usually within the normal range (29,30).»

«Et vegankosthold kan settes sammen slik at det gir tilstrekkelig av alle næringsstoffer. Behovet for D-vitamin, vitamin B12 og jod er imidlertid vanskelig å dekke med vegankost, og disse næringsstoffene bør tas i form av tilskudd eller produkter tilsatt disse næringsstoffene. Veganere må også være oppmerksomme på inntaket av kalsium, jern og sink.»

«Jernopptaket bør optimaliseres ved å sikre at måltidene inneholder mat som er gode C-vitaminkilder og ved og bløtlegging av kornvarer belgvekster. Lakto-vegetarisk mat inneholder oftest mindre jern enn vegankost, fordi melk og meieriprodukter gir svært lite jern.»

«Heme iron absorption is substantially higher than non-heme iron from plant foods. However, hemoglobin concentrations and the risk of iron deficiency anemia are similar for vegans compared with omnivores and other vegetarians (70). Vegans often consume large amounts of vitamin C–rich foods that markedly improve the absorption of the nonheme iron. Serum ferritin concentrations are lower in some vegans, whereas the mean values tend to be similar to the mean values of other vegetarians but lower than the mean value for omnivores (71). The physiologic significance of low serum ferritin concentrations is uncertain at this time.»

«Although the iron stores of vegetarians may be reduced, the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in vegetarians is not significantly different from that in omnivores.»
«Whereas phytates, polyphenolics, and other plant constituents found in vegetarian diets inhibit nonheme-iron absorption, vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids facilitate nonheme-iron absorption.»

«Lakto-vegetarisk mat inneholder oftest mindre jern enn vegankost, fordi melk og meieriprodukter gir svært lite jern.»

«The long-term effects of vegetarian diets on iron status are apparent from cross-sectional surveys. In these studies, meat intake is the dietary factor most commonly associated with iron status or serum ferritin (24–28).

Vegetarians, especially females, have lower iron stores, as indicated by serum ferritin (Table 2⇓) (25, 29–42). However, the results of such surveys remain consistent with the conclusion over a decade ago that “iron deficiency anemia appears to be no more prevalent among vegetarian women than among nonvegetarian women” (43, page 77), at least in Western countries. Of 3 reports of lower hemoglobin or hematocrit in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians (Table 2⇓), the relatively high incidence of anemia in Chinese adults was twice as frequent among female vegetarians (consuming a diet rich in soy products) as nonvegetarians (39). However, US college women who consumed a lactoovovegetarian diet or mainly fish or poultry, compared with those who consumed mainly red meat as a protein source, had lower serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentrations and greater iron binding capacities, but the hemoglobin and hematocrit values were in the normal range for all groups (35). Similarly, British vegetarian children with significantly lower hemoglobin concentrations compared with matched omnivores had no greater proportion with hemoglobin values less than normal (40). Thus, although several reports indicate that vegetarians in Western societies have lower iron stores and may have lower hemoglobin concentrations, they do not indicate a greater incidence of iron deficiency anemia.»

«Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide despite the fact that global prevention is a high priority. Recent guidelines suggest intake of red meat both in infants and toddlers to prevent iron deficiency. However frequent consumption of red and processed meat may be associated with an increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Evidence also suggests that even in vegetarian diets or diets with little consumption of white or red meat, iron status may not be adversely affected. The Eastern Orthodox Christian Church dietary recommendations which is a type of periodic vegetarian diet, has proved beneficial for the prevention of iron deficiency and avoidance of excess iron intake. This paper aims to provide examples of meals for children and adolescents that may be sufficient to meet age specific iron requirements without consumption of red meat beyond the recommended consumption which is once or twice per month.»

Jod

Selen

Livsmedelsverket. Selen