Anbefaling om å spise mer plantesert baseres på et solidt faglig grunnlag

Hva sier helseorganisasjoner om plantebasert kosthold

Det er konkludert med overbevisende dokumentasjon (evidens grad en) for at vegetarisk kosthold reduserer risiko for å dø av hjerteinfarkt. Plantebaserte kostholdsmønstre kan redusere risiko for livsstilssykdommer som diabetes type 2, hjerte- og karsykdommer, overvekt og fedme, og flere typer kreft. Mange studier tyder på at plantebasert kost bidrar til økt livslengde og reduserer risikoen for tidlig død fra flere sykdommer.

Last ned en guide om plantebasert kosthold for leger her

Verdens største forening for ernæringsfysiologer

Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116:1970-1980

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.
These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes.

Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage. Vegetarians and vegans are at reduced risk of certain health conditions, including ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain types of cancer, and obesity.
Low intake of saturated fat and high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, soy products, nuts, and seeds (all rich in fiber and phytochemicals) are characteristics of vegetarian and vegan diets that produce lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and better serum glucose control. These factors contribute to reduction of chronic disease.
Vegans need reliable sources of vitamin B-12, such as fortified foods or supplements.

Nordiske oppsummeringsartikler

Sara Ask, dietist, Åsa Strindlund, nutritionist. Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn. Läkartidningen. 2014;111:CMEA Läkartidningen 11/2014 Lakartidningen.se 2014-03-11 (uppdaterad 2014-09-22)

«Egentligen borde alla barn äta en stor andel vegetabilier. Helvegetarisk mat är ett bra kostalternativ – även för små barn – och kan ge långsiktiga hälsovinster. Kosten måste dock vara väl sammansatt, med extra observans på vissa näringsämnen.»

Baljit Kaur, klinisk ernæringsfysiolog, M.Sc. Helsefordeler og utfordringer ved vegankoster Norsk tidsskrift for ernæring (NTFE).

Andre oppsummeringer

Ernæringsrådet i USA. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Part A. Executive Summary. USA. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2015

“The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promoting and is associated with less environmental impact than is the current U.S. diet.”

World Cancer Research Fund, WCRF (Verdens ledende organisasjon innen kreftforskning), 2007. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a Global Perspective. Second expert report (2007) World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-9722522-2-5)

“They emphasise the importance of relatively unprocessed cereals (grains), non-starchy vegetables and fruits, and pulses (legumes), all of which contain substantial amounts of dietary fibre and a variety of micronutrients, and are low or relatively low in energy density. These, and not foods of animal origin, are the recommended centre for everyday meals.»

Kanadisk ernæringsfysiologforening. Eating Guidelines for Vegans

«A healthy vegan diet has many health benefits including lower rates of obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer.

It may take planning to get enough protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins D and B12 and omega-3 fats from foods or supplements.  A healthy vegan diet can meet all your nutrient needs at any stage of life including when you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for older adults.»

Nordiske myndigheter om vegetarisk kosthold

Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012: Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordisk Ministerråds sekretariat, 2014.

«Dietary patterns rich in vegetables, including dark green leaves, fresh peas and beans, cabbage, onion, root vegetables, fruiting vegetables (e.g., tomatoes, peppers, avocados, and olives), pulses, fruits and berries, nuts and seeds, whole grains, fish and seafood, vegetable oils and vegetable oil-based fat spreads (derived from, for example, rapeseed, flaxseed, or olives), and low-fat dairy products are, compared to Western-type dietary patterns (see below), associated with lower risk of most chronic diseases.»

Helsedirektoratet. Vegetarisk kosthold

«Godt sammensatt vegetarkost er ernæringsmessig fullverdig og kan ha positive helseeffekter med tanke på forebygging og behandling av flere sykdommer.
Vegetarkost er forbundet med lavere risiko for blant annet overvekt, hjerte- og karsykdommer, diabetes og kreft. En balansert og variert vegetarkost egner seg for individer i alle livsfaser, inkludert under svangerskap, ved amming, i spedbarnsperioden, for barn og unge og for idrettsutøvere.»
«Godt sammensatt vegetarkost inneholder korn og fullkornsprodukter, bønner, linser, erter, soyaprodukter, grønnsaker, frukt, bær, nøtter, frø og planteoljer. Et slikt kosthold gir mye fiber, vitaminer, mineraler og sporstoffer.»

Kostråd for å fremme folkehelsen og forebygge kroniske sykdommer – Metodologi og vitenskapelig kunnskapsgrunnlag. Nasjonalt råd for ernæring, Helsedirektoratet, 2011:

«Det anbefales et kosthold som hovedsakelig er plantebasert, og som inneholder mye grønnsaker, frukt, bær, fullkorn og fisk, og begrensede mengder rødt kjøtt, salt, tilsatt sukker og energirike matvarer.»

Livsmedelsverket:  Vegetarisk mat till barn

«En kost med mycket grönsaker, rotfrukter, baljväxter och fullkorn är bra både för hälsan och miljön. Därför är det bra om barn lär sig tycka om sådan mat i unga år, det ökar chansen för att de ska fortsätta med de vanorna även senare i livet. En helt vegetarisk kost till barn kräver, precis som till vuxna, goda kunskaper om mat och näringsämnen och noggrann planering. Om den vegetariska kosten är väl sammansatt, innehåller berikade produkter och ger tillräckligt med energi kan även barn äta helt vegetarisk mat – veganmat.»

Livsmedelverket. Vegetarisk mat

«Det finns stora hälsovinster med att äta mycket grönsaker, frukt, baljväxter och annan mat från växtriket. Vegetarianer löper till exempel mindre risk att drabbas av en rad olika sjukdomar, som högt blodtryck, hjärt- och kärlsjukdom och vissa cancerformer.»

Fødevarestyrelsen. Alt Om Kost 

«Videnskabelige undersøgelser tyder på, at vegetarmad nedsætter risikoen for kroniske sygdomme som fedme, hjerte-kar-sygdomme, forhøjet blodtryk, diabetes, visse former for kræft og nyrelidelser.»

Norsk lærebok «Grunleggende ernæringslære» (forfattere: Jan Ivar Pedersen, Hanne Müller, Anette Hjartåker, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Utgivelsesår: 2012, 460 sider, 2. utgave, Bokmål, ISBN/EAN: 9788205426566):

«En allsidig sammensatt vegankost inneholder vanligvis tilstrekkelige mengder av vitaminer og mineralstoffer med unntak av vitamin B12 og vitamin D.»

«En allsidig sammensatt laktovegetarisk kost har et tilfredstillende innhold av protein, vitaminer og mineralstoffer. Den er derfor likeverdig med en variert blandet kost.»

«Å ha et vegetarisk kosthold synes å redusere risikoen for utbredte helseproblemer som overvekt, hjerte- og karsykdommer og type-2 diabetes.»

Forskning om vegetarisk/plantebasert kosthold og hjerte- og karsykdommer, kardiometabolske risikofaktorer, noen typer kreft og for tidlig dødelighet

Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1627S-1633S;

«Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease.» 

Le LT, Sabaté J. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts. Nutrients. 2014 May 27;6(6):2131-47. doi: 10.3390/nu6062131. Review. PubMed PMID: 24871675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4073139.

«Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females.»

Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets: What do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1607S-12S.

There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity. Overall, their cancer rates appear to be moderately lower than others living in the same communities, and life expectancy appears to be greater.»

Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65:35-41.

«Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease.»

Phillip J Tuso, MD; Mohamed H Ismail, MD; Benjamin P Ha, MD; Carole Bartolotto, MA, RD: Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets. Perm J 2013 Spring; 17(2):61-66

«Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity.»

Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:525S–531S.

«After 12 y of ow-up, all-cause mortality in the whole cohort was roughly half that in the population of England and Wales (standardized mortality ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.51). After adjusting for smoking, body mass index, and social class, death rates were lower in non-meat-eaters than in meat eaters for each of the mortality endpoints studied [relative risks and 95% CIs: 0.80 (0. 65, 0.99) for all causes of death, 0.72 (0.47, 1.10) for ischemic heart disease, and 0.61 (0.44, 0.84) for all malignant neoplasms]. Mortality from ischemic heart disease was also positively associated with estimated intakes of total animal fat, saturated animal fat, and dietary cholesterol. Other analyses showed that non-meat-eaters had only half the risk of meat eaters of requiring an emergency appendectomy, and that vegans in Britain may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Thus, the health of vegetarians in this study is generally good and compares favorably with that of the nonvegetarian control subjects.»

Bradbury KE, Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Schmidt J a, Travis RC, Key TJ. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Eur J Clin Nutr. Nature Publishing Group; 2013;(April):1–6.

«In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.»

Vegetarisk/plantebasert kosthold og kreft

Vegetarisk/plantebasert kosthold og hjerte- og karsykdommer

Vegetarisk/plantebasert  kosthold og diabetes type to

  • Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc
    Dis. 2013 Apr;23(4):292-9. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.07.004. Epub 2011 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 21983060; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3638849.
  • Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, et al. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(5):791-6.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351712
  • Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2011.
  • Rizzo NS, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(5):1225-7.

Vegetarisk/plantebasert kosthold og overvekt

  • Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Jul 3.
    [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26138004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138004
  • Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Jun;115(6):954-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.016. Epub 2015 Jan 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 25620754.
  • Kim MK, Cho SW, Park YK. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(2):155-61.
  • Rizzo NS, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, et al. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(5):1225-7.
  • Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, et al. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(5):791-6.

Vegetarisk/plantebasert  kosthold og livslengden

  • Michael J. Orlich; Pramil N Singh; Joan Sabaté; Karen Jaceldo-Siegl; Jing Fan; Synnove Knutsen; W. Lawrence Beeson; Gary E. Fraser: Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1230-1238. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473.
  • Huang T., Yang B.a, Zheng J., Li G.a, Wahlqvist M.L., Li D.: Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;60:233–240 (DOI:10.1159/000337301)

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